Противоспутниковое оружие и воздушно-космическая оборона

#23
Пятое испытание ракеты Нудоль и третье успешное

неизвестно по какой цели осуществлялся пуск ракеты - по ИСЗ или просто по суборбитальной траектории
Russia Conducts Fifth Test of New Anti-Satellite Missile
Third successful flight test of satellite-killing weapon


BY: Bill Gertz
December 21, 2016 5:00 am

Russia successfully flight tested a new missile capable of knocking out strategic U.S. communications and navigation satellites, according to Pentagon officials.

The test of the PL-19 Nudol missile was carried out Dec. 16 from a base in central Russia, and was monitored by U.S. intelligence agencies.

It was the fifth test of the Nudol missile and the third successful flight of a system Moscow has claimed is for use against enemy missiles, said officials familiar with the reports of the launch.

The exact location of the flight test was not disclosed. Earlier tests of the missile took place from a facility near Plesetsk, located 500 miles north of Moscow.

It could not be learned if the Nudol was sent into space or fired in a sub-orbital trajectory.

Pentagon spokeswoman Lt. Col. Michelle Baldanza declined to comment. “We generally don’t comment on other countries’ capabilities,” she said.

Earlier tests took place May 24 and Nov. 18, 2015. Both tests were first reported by the Washington Free Beacon.

The high rate of testing is an indication the program is a military priority and is progressing toward deployment.

The new anti-satellite missile is among several new strategic weapons systems being developed by the Russian military.

The Nudol is viewed by the Pentagon as a so-called “direct ascent” anti-satellite missile. Russia, however, has sought to mask the missile’s anti-satellite capabilities by claiming the missile is for defense against incoming ballistic missiles.

The Pentagon is worried about the development of anti-satellite weapons by both Russia and China.

Gen. John Hyten, the commander of Air Force Space Command who was recently promoted to lead Strategic Command, has stated that Russia and China are building space warfare systems that are worrying. “They are developing capabilities that concern us,” Hyten has said.

In March, Air Force Lt. Gen. David J. Buck, commander of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space, revealed during House testimony that the Russian military is developing weapons with “counter-space capabilities.”

“Russia views U.S. dependency on space as an exploitable vulnerability, and they are taking deliberate actions to strengthen their counter-space capabilities,” Buck said.

Mark Schneider, a former Pentagon strategic arms policymaker, said the current asymmetry between the United States and other nations in anti-satellite capabilities “is of enormous significance.”

“Potentially, it could result in our defeat in a high intensity conflict,” Schneider said. “The complete loss of the GPS network, or its serious degradation, would eliminate the effectiveness of all existing long-range conventional strike cruise missiles and would degrade the functioning of many of our precision guided weapons.”

Anti-satellite missiles also could be used to knock out communications satellites. “We have begun to take some steps to reduce our reliance on GPS but this will not be near term,” Schneider said.

Michaela Dodge, a defense analyst at the Heritage Foundation, said the Russian test highlights the growing threat to space from new weapons.

“The test demonstrates the need for the United States to treat space as an increasingly contested environment where access might not be guaranteed as it has been in the past,” she said.

“It demonstrates the need to exercise scenarios in which U.S. military might not have a complete access to its complete utilization,” Dodge added. “The test also illustrates the need to protect and diversify U.S. space infrastructure.”

U.S. intelligence agencies have estimated that U.S. military operations could be severely disrupted with only two dozen or so anti-satellite attacks.

Satellites are used for precision navigation, targeting, and communications and intelligence gathering.

The Pentagon is very dependent on satellites for long-range warfare operations, an American military specialty.

Both Russia and China have recognized the strategic vulnerability of U.S. dependency on satellites. Anti-satellite missiles are regarded as important asymmetric warfare weapons.

Both China and Russia are developing lasers and other directed-energy weapons that can blind or disrupt satellites. Small satellites capable of maneuvering in space and grabbing and crushing satellites also are being developed.

Russian generals have mentioned their forces fielding anti-satellite capabilities in public statements, but with few details. For example, Russian Lt. Gen. Oleg Ostapenko, former commander of space forces, has said the S-500 anti-missile system is capable of hitting “low-orbit satellites and space weapons.”

In May, Vadim Kozyulin, a professor at the Academy of Military Sciences, was quoted as saying that discussion of “space kamikazes” suggests Moscow is preparing for a conflict in space with the United States.

The TASS news agency reported that the A-60, a variation of the IL-76 transport aircraft, has a laser anti-satellite capability.

In October, TASS reported that the Nudol is called the A-235 and is being developed to replace the current nuclear-tipped missile defense system ringing Moscow.

Missile defense interceptors share characteristics with space-faring satellite killers. Both travel at high rates of speed and require precision targeting and guidance.

The United States has no anti-satellite weapons. However, a Navy SM-3 anti-missile interceptor was modified to shoot down a de-orbiting intelligence satellite in 2008, indicating U.S. missile defenses could be used to target foreign satellites.

The Defense Intelligence Agency stated in a report to Congress last year that Russia leaders “openly assert that the Russian armed forces have anti-satellite weapons and conduct anti-satellite research.”

China conducted a flight test of its new anti-satellite missile in early December. Preparations for the test were first reported by the Free Beacon.

The missile was identified as a DN-3 direct ascent missile. That system, like the Russian Nudol, is being developed under cover as a missile-defense weapon.

China’s Defense Ministry said the Free Beacon report of test preparations for the DN-3 was “groundless.”
 
#27
Наблюдение за российскими пусками показывает, что работы по совершенствованию системы наведения ведутся. Это секретные спутники проекта 14F153 - Космос-2491, Космос-2499, Космос-2504, небольшие спутники, с возможностями изменения орбиты, запускавшиеся под прикрытием других запусков.
Россия продолжает эксперименты с такими спутниками. В запуске 23 июня вместе с основным аппаратом Космос-2519 опять тайно был выведен небольшой спутник. Оба аппарата, и основной Космос-2519, и небольшой перехватчик - аналогично предыдущим Космос-2491, Космос-2499, Космос-2504 имеют возможность маневрировать на орбите. Впервые министр обороны России признал, что этот аппарат имеет возможности не только маневрировать, но и инспектировать.
Космический аппарат, предназначенный для инспекции состояния отечественного спутника, в среду был выведен на орбиту. Он был запущен вместе с аппаратом-платформой с космодрома Плесецк 23 июня в интересах Министерства обороны.

С аппарата-платформы на орбиту выведен спутник-инспектор, запущенный в интересах российского военного ведомства 23 июня с космодрома Плесецк. Об этом сообщил "Интерфакс" со ссылкой на Министерство обороны.

"Сегодня с этой платформы произошло отделение малого космического аппарата, предназначенного для инспекции состояния отечественного спутника", - говорится в сообщении.

В ведомстве отметили, что в дальнейшем будет проведен эксперимент по исследованию состояния спутника по его внешнему виду с помощью малого космического аппарата.
A miniature vehicle designed to inspect its host satellite was released on August 23 from a military spacecraft launched on June 23 from Plesetsk Cosmodrome, the Russian Interfax news agency reported, quoting the Russian Ministry of Defense. "Today, from that platform, took place the separation of a small spacecraft, designed for the inspection of the condition of the Russian satellite," the Ministry of Defense was quoted as saying, "Later on, a scientific experiment is being planned to study that satellite's external appearance with the (inspector) spacecraft."

Based on the launch date of June 23, 2017, the statement referred to the Kosmos-2519/Napryazhenie spacecraft or an accompanying payload delivered into orbit during this mission.
 
#28
Space Force? Create a 'Space Guard' Instead, Some Argue

LOS ANGELES — As the White House and Congress debate whether to establish a "Space Force" within the Defense Department, some believe a more effective approach is to develop an organization analogous to the Coast Guard.

In a panel discussion at the International Space Development Conference here May 27, former government officials and other experts suggested a "Space Guard" could be a more effective tool in dealing with space security issues in an era where there are more countries, and more companies, operating in Earth orbit.

"I think it's important for us to realize that we have not simply force projection in question, or defensive capabilities against aggression," said Greg Autry, a professor at the University of Southern California Marshall School of Business who served on the NASA transition team for the Trump administration. "We also have issues of how do we simply enforce compliance with laws we're going to pass on on-orbit—and potentially beyond that—activities in space." [Military Space: The Spacecraft, Weapons and Tech]

A "Space Guard," modeled on the U.S. Coast Guard, could be a solution to that issue. "To me, I think this is actually a much bigger problem than just talking about national security space," said George Nield, the former associate administrator for commercial space transportation at the Federal Aviation Administration. "There is, today, no single department or agency that is charged with holistically managing U.S. interests in space."

Efforts like the reconstituted National Space Council and, which directs the Commerce Department to consolidate its various space responsibilities into a "one-stop shop" office, help in that effort, he argued, but alone aren't sufficient. It also ignores new initiatives, he added, from dealing with orbital debris to a future "search and rescue" capability.

Nield said a "reasonable option" would be to create a Space Guard modeled on the Coast Guard. Its mission, he said, would be to "enhance the safety of space operations and preserve the space environment." That Space Guard, he said, would be part of a civilian department during peacetime, but integrated into Defense Department during wartime. He added later that ability to be placed under the Pentagon's control could eliminate the need for either a separate Space Force or a "Space Corps" within the Air Force.

A Space Guard could have a policing duty not typically assigned to militaries, said Rand Simberg, a former engineer and longtime commentator on space policy issues. However, he cautioned that the analogy to the Coast Guard is not perfect. "Sea is not space. Maritime law doesn't project directly into outer space because that's not the way the Outer Space Treaty is written," he said. Likewise, he noted, maritime salvage laws don't apply to space objects, a challenge for orbital debris removal efforts.

Nield said a Space Guard would be a mix of existing and new capabilities. "We want to do a more efficient job of what is being done today across several different departments and agencies," he said. "And then there are all these potentially new responsibilities, whether it is search and rescue, inspection, other things that are not really being handled today."

The idea of a Space Guard or other organization isn't new but is gaining traction. "I don't think it's ever been this serious," said Michael Laine, an entrepreneur and former Marine. He tended to lean in favor of a more military organization, like a Space Corps, though, although with some kind of multinational organization to handle policing.

"If I were to wave my magic wand, it would be something like an international police force of some sort, and a U.S. military Space Corps," he said. "I think there's almost no way to not have an international policing-style organization, but for U.S. national interests I think that the Space Corps must be out there, in a military perspective, guarding U.S. interests."

None of the panelists, though, advocated for keeping space security responsibilities with the Air Force. "If the Air Force thinks that the status quo is okay, that kind of proves the case that it's not," Laine said. "The Air Force is fundamentally unequipped to manage space in this new environment."

"Every once in a while, it can be helpful to break some china, break some eggs, and start fresh," said Nield. "Having a new start can be exciting and motivating."

This story was provided by SpaceNews, dedicated to covering all aspects of the space industry.
https://www.space.com/40778-space-force-or-space-guard-for-us-military.html
 
#29
Пятое испытание ракеты Нудоль и третье успешное
2018 г для Нудоли успешен, американская разведка подтверждает, что оба испытательных пуска носителя в 2018 были успешными. В 2017 г. испытаний не было. Боеголовка еще не готова, пока отлаживают ракету "изделие 14А042".
Russia conducted another successful test of an anti-satellite missile, according to a classified US intelligence report
  • Russia conducted another successful flight test of its new anti-satellite missile system last month, two sources with direct knowledge of a U.S. intelligence report say.
  • Russia's PL-19 Nudol, a system U.S. military intelligence assesses will be focused primarily on anti-satellite missions, has been tested seven times.
  • The Russian anti-satellite weapon is expected to target communication and imagery satellites in low Earth orbit, according to one source, who spoke on condition of anonymity.
Russia conducted another successful flight test of its new anti-satellite missile system last month, according to two people with direct knowledge of a classified U.S. intelligence report.

The anti-satellite missile flew for 17 minutes and 1,864 miles before successfully splashing down in its target area.

The latest revelation comes on the heels of the Pentagon's 108-page missile defense review, which marks the first overhaul of America's missile defense doctrine in nearly a decade. The unclassified review, which singles out emerging Russian, Chinese, North Korean and Iranian missile threats, also focuses on anti-satellite capabilities that "could threaten U.S. space-based assets."

According to the missile review, "Russia is developing a diverse suite of anti-satellite capabilities, including ground-launched missiles and directed-energy weapons, and continues to launch 'experimental' satellites that conduct sophisticated on-orbit activities to advance counterspace capabilities."

Russia's PL-19 Nudol, a system U.S. military intelligence assesses will be focused primarily on anti-satellite missions, was successfully tested twice in 2018. The weapon, which was fired from a mobile launcher, was last tested on Dec. 23 and marked the seventh overall test of the system, according to one of the people who spoke on the condition of anonymity.

The Russian anti-satellite weapon is expected to target communication and imagery satellites in low Earth orbit, according to the other person, who also spoke on condition of anonymity. For reference, the International Space Station and the Hubble Space Telescope travel in low Earth orbit.

While anti-satellite missiles are by no means new, the latest revelation comes less than a year after Putin touted his nation's growing military arsenal.

"I want to tell all those who have fueled the arms race over the last 15 years, sought to win unilateral advantages over Russia, introduced unlawful sanctions aimed to contain our country's development: You have failed to contain Russia," Putin said during a national address in March.

The complicated threats of anti-satellite weapons

A recently unclassified report from the National Air and Space Intelligence Center, or NASIC, explained how the U.S. advantage above the Earth's atmosphere is eroding to "an emergent China and a resurgent Russia."

The NASIC report said there number of foreign intelligence and imaging satellites "has tripled" to 300 in orbit in the last two decades. The U.S. itself has 353 of its own space assets in orbit for those purposes. In response, military superpowers have poured funding into researching and developing anti-satellite weapons.

Missiles are the most high-profile, physical manifestation of anti-satellite weapons. Frank Slazer, the vice president of space systems at the Aerospace Industries Association, told CNBC about how those missiles may be physically effective, but are likely not the "first line of approach on this."

"You'd much rather jam the satellite, blind it [with a laser], or take over its control systems with a cyberattack," Slazer said. "Kinetic impacts could cause problems for other nations, besides the one you are attacking, and possibly for your own system's for many years afterwards."

Both Slazer and the NASIC report pointed to the example of China's anti-satellite test in 2007. China fired an anti-satellite missile at one of its own, discarded weather satellites. The test was successful, but the satellite shattered into thousands of pieces, which continue to zip around in an orbital cloud of deadly debris.

"A huge percentage of the debris in low earth orbit is still attributable to that one test," Slazer said.

As far as the U.S. military's ability to defend against anti-satellite weapons, the assets and capabilities in orbit "are the same as they have been for awhile," Tommy Sanford, director of the Commercial Spaceflight Federation, told CNBC.

Sanford contends that there has not been much in the way of progress when it comes to defending U.S. space-based assets. Sanford gave the example of using networks of smaller and cheaper satellites, like cubesats and nanosats, to offer "effective platforms to augment and support missions carried out by the DoD's larger exquisite satellites."

"The idea behind a distributed architecture for space support is – instead of having one exquisite target – you'd have a system which could presumably survive some loss of its elements and still be able to provide function," Slazer said.

While Sanford said there are concepts which groups like the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or DARPA, are working on, the solutions have yet to mature.

Sanford pointed to NASA's use of small satellites on the recent Mars InSight mission. Two cubesats the size of mailboxes, MarCo-A and MarCo-B, provided critical communications relay capabilities as the InSight spacecraft came in for a landing on the Martian surface.

"The Department of Defense has a game-changing opportunity to build more resiliency into it's space enabled missions by augmenting the larger satellite missions with smaller satellites and commercial services," Sanford said. "The Defense Department knows the value. Now it should follow NASA's lead and implement it."
 
#30
The anti-satellite missile flew for 17 minutes and 1,864 miles before successfully splashing down in its target area.
Потрясающе, с точностью до мили! US intelligence - это вам не солцберецкие шпили! И после этого русские будут утверждать что Америка не знает дальности русских ракет, к которым у нее претензии по договору РСМД...
PS: занимательный факт, ракета пролетела ровно 3000 км - 2999 километров 820 метров.
 
#31
Потрясающе, с точностью до мили! US intelligence - это вам не солцберецкие шпили! И после этого русские будут утверждать что Америка не знает дальности русских ракет, к которым у нее претензии по договору РСМД...
одно дело замерить дистанцию при испытании. другое дело заявить , что ракета ,испытывавшаяся пусками на дистанцию до 500км, на самом деле может улететь на дистанцию в пару тысяч км.

в первом случае имеем реальный результат ,во втором какие-то расчеты ,не подтвержденные этим реальным результатом.
 
#33
Индийские военные сбили находившийся на низкой околоземной орбите спутник, сообщил премьер-министр страны Нарендра Моди. Успешное испытание противоспутникового оружия в ходе миссии Shakti является прорывом Нью-Дели в сфере космической обороны, заявил он, обращаясь к нации в среду, 27 марта. Тем самым, по словам Моди, Индия стала четвертой страной после США, России и Китая, владеющей подобного рода оружием. "Индия заявила о себе в качестве космической державы", - подчеркнул он и добавил, что страна может защищать себя на земле, воде, в воздухе, а с настоящего момента и в космосе.

Читать далее: https://ru.delfi.lt/abroad/global/i...i-kosmicheskij-sputnik.d?id=80732155#cxrecs_s
 
#37
Летом 2019 года США временно разместят в Румынии систему противоракетной обороны THAAD, чтобы обеспечивать оборону, пока идут технические работы над размещенным в республике комплексом Aegis Ashore. Об этом сообщается на сайте НАТО.

Aegis проходит запланированную ранее модернизацию. По словам авторов заявления, технические работы не добавят противоракетному комплексу атакующей мощности. Пока они проводятся, оборону НАТО по запросу самого альянса будет поддерживать американская система THAAD.


Пусковые установки, которые США развернули в Румынии и разворачивают в Польше, Россия считает нарушающими Договор о ракетах средней и меньшей дальности (ДРСМД), так как они могут доставлять запрещенные им крылатые ракеты «Томагавк».

Terminal High Altitude Area Defense — подвижный комплекс ПРО наземного базирования, предназначенный для высотного заатмосферного перехвата ракет средней дальности. 5 марта стало известно, что США развернули такой комплекс на территории Израиля с целью защиты его от Ирана.